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1795 Rori drove Te Roroa from Waimamaku into the Waipoua.
Approx. 1795
The Roroa defeated by Rori (Section of Ngapuhi) at Ponaharakeke on Waimamaku and Te Roroa then moved and mingled with Parore's people being another Section of Ngapuhi at Waipoua and to the South
Tiopira Kinaki of Te Roroa states - Hokianga (person) said yesterday (Monday 14th June 1875) that this claim extended over the whole block down to the coast that is wrong the ancestors he named only owned on the inland and (Kahumaku). Rori was a Ngapuhi. He had no land here. He came to exterminate the Roroa on Waimamaku. The fight at Ponaharakeke is true. The Roroa were defeated there by Rori. The refugees fled to Waipoua. (Note - referring to events about 1795) (Evidence of Tiopira Kinaki, Northern Minute Book 2 page 207 - 208, concerning Case of Waimamaku, Wednesday 16th June 1875)

Rori of Ngapuhi went to Kawerau on the Waipoua Block
and was Attacked by Te Roroa

Rori after this left Waimamaku and went to Ottenga on the coast. He was employed there catching fish. The fish at Kawerua. Kawerua is south of Wairau on Waipoua Block. Some of the Roroa came from Waipoua and some of Rori's fishing canoes had just come in. The Roroa seized the fish. They stripped the men and scratched their backs with the spines of the fish. They escaped and ran off to Owetanga. Rori was angry at the treatment his young men had received and he and Mahia decided to attack the Roroa on the eighth month (December) at the time appointed Mahia came from his place. He went to Rori's place. Mahia remained in the bush with the main body of the army. While Rori with seventy men went to gather kumara's. The Roroa from a pa named Wairarapa saw Rori's people at work on the Karaka trees. The Karaka grove was called the Takapau.
The Taramainuku chief of Te Roroa (Note - Not Parore's grandfather by the same name) came out after the Karaka gatherers. The Karaka gatherers fled towards where Mahia was with the main body pursued by Te Roroa. The Mahia and his army rose attacked the Roroa and defeated them. The Roroa chiefs killed were Taramainuku, Tamatua and Waiputuputu. Rori made a "pepeha" on the occasion. The victorious party went to Waimamaku. (Evidence of Tiopira Kinaki, Northern Minute Book 2 page 207 - 208, concerning Case of Waimamaku, Wednesday 16th June 1875) (Note - This Taramainuku is of Roroa but not the same Taramainuku who was Parore te Awha's grandfather).

Taurau (Brother of Te Tirarau the Paramount chief stated - Roroa tribes came and settled at Kaihu without any right to do so - my father Kukupa came from the Waipoua and destroyed their plantations two years in succession (Note - about 1795 - 1800) - Kahukore told her son Taoho (Note - of Te Roroa) to go to Kukupa (Note - of Ngapuhi) & leave off destroying plantations & to leave Kaihu as a settlement for him until he died - KahuKore was an old woman & Kukupa consented to allow Taoho to live at Kaihu. KahuKore was the mother of Taoho. (Note - Kahukore's husband was Taoho's father Te Waiata) Tiopira was allowed to live on this land by my tribe (Ngapuhi) (ancestors) Roroa tribe live on this land until the battle at Te Ika a ranganui (1825), at that time I was living at Waipoua with Parore.
(Note - Tiopira and Taoho were Te Roroa and were allowed to return. Re the Te Kaha and Te Kairau peace agreement with Hongi Hika in 1823-4) Tiopira's ancestors lived at Kaihu. (Note - referring to Te Roroa shifting in for a decade pre 1806 before they were driven off by Ngapuhi proper) (Evidence by Taurau, Kaipara Minute book 3, Page 127 - 128 concerning case of Waimata, Monday 24th May 1875)

Tiopira Kinaki of Te Roroa stated - After a time (several years) the Ngatiue came from Whangape with their chief Te Tahua and came and lived at Waimamaku. His father Te Karauna went and lived at Kaihu with my grand Uncle Taoho. (Note - 1795 - 1806) He stayed there many years and then came back to Waimamaku. (1825) They lived together until the time when Ngatiue turned upon Roroa. (1846 re fight over Tiopira's wife) (Evidence sworn by Tiopira Kinaki, Northern Minute Book 2 page 188 - 189, concerning Case of Waimamaku, 12th June 1875)


Kaihu case : 21st Feb'y 1871, (Kaipara Minute Book 2:198 (Page 205) Parore Te Awha states - Taoho (Te Roroa) set up a rahui (meaning - a reserve, restriction on access, prohibition) at Maunganui, (1795) it was a boundary for Kukupa and Te Awha (Ngapuhi). This was to stop us from coming on this (south) side of Maunganui (meaning south side). Taoho then said that he was the cause of Kukupa (Tirarau's father) living at the Kaihu. My father (Te Awha) heard this and got up and cut down the rahui and threw it away. Taoho heard of this and he came to Waipoua and Te Awha said to Taoho, "does this land belong to you, there is the land belonging to your ancestor Tehe at Muriwhenua". (referring to the land to the far north from where Ngatiwhatua's ancestors had decended).

Te Roroa move on to Taramainuku lands at Waipoua and Kaihu
Somewhere about the year 1795, (Note - In fact should read 1805-6) there was a dispute about lands in the Kaihu Valley, then occupied by some of the Roroa tribe and their relations, and Tara-mai-nuku (Parore te Awha's Grandfather) was driven from Waipoua by a war-party of other Roroa people of Waipoua, under the leadership of Te Waiata. (Note - father of Taoho) (19th Century Maori Wars page 21)
(Note - This is not what was said in the Te Roroa Waitangi Tribunal Report in 1992. They made things to suit themselves and to sound good on their behalf for their false land claim)

Te Waiata Father of Taoho of Te Roroa again follow up Tara-mainuku
Tara-mai-nuku settled down in the Kaihu Valley, but not in peace, for shortly afterwards Te Waiata followed him up, and defeated him in a battle fought at Wai-tata-nui. (Note - According to Kaipara Minute Book 2:200 the fight was at Te Wai-tata-nui on the Kaihu mountain being outside the Kaihu Block).

Defeat at Te Hau-o-te-raorao causes Taramainuku to move to the Wairoa River
This was succeeded by another defeat at Te Hau-o-te-raorao, (This is inside the Kaihu Map) which caused Tara-mai-nuku and his people (Ngapuhi) to flee to the Wairoa river, where they settled, (Dargaville District) whilst Te Roroa chiefs Te Waiata, his brother Te Maunga, and the former's son Taoho, settled at Kaihu. (The Opanake) (Note - According this version was supplied by Te Rore Taoho of Te Roroa but accounts given by Ngapuhi in the Land Court minute Books show that while the Ngapuhi woman and children were taken to Kaikohe the Ngapuhi men infact still stayed on the ground along side Te Roroa) The soil of Kaihu valley which runs out to the Wairoa river at the modern town of Dargaville, is very rich, and must always have been a desirable place of residence for the Maoris on that account, and this no doubt was the reason of these fights for its possession amongst fellow tribesmen, (note - referring not only to Te Roroa but also remnants of Ngatiwhatua) who, however, were a few years later found all in arms against the common enemy, Nga-Puhi. (Ref - Kaipara Minute Book 2: 200) (Note - shortly after these events Te Roroa were scattered and some forced south into exile).
For some of the events in this border warfare I (S. Percy Smith) am indebted to Mr. John Webster, of Hokianga, and Mr. G. F. Maxwell, of Auckland, both of whom took great trouble to enquire into points wherein my own notes were deficient. Mr. Maxwell's authority is principally old Te Rore-Taoho, now a very old man (being 1897) of Te Roroa tribe, (But Note - not yet born when these events started) and the son of Taoho mentioned above. For some particulars I have to thank Paora- Kawharu, his son the Rev. Hauraki Paora, and Hone Mohi Tawhai.


At about the year 1804 or 1805 the Roroa tribe was now living principally in the Kaihu valley and Waipoua. Their chiefs at that time were Taoho, Hukeumu, Te Munga, Tuohu, and Te Toko. On one occasion these chiefs received a friendly visit from the great Nga-Puhi chief Pokaia, (Father of Hone Heke. (Note - Pokaia at one time had a wife called Kararu who was a sister of Hongi Hika's) (Note - Graham Rankin a descendant of that family says he was infact under Hone Heke) Hone Heke later in history conducted, the war against the British Government in 1844) whose home was at that time at Kirioke, near Kaikohe-that rich fertile district on the road from the Bay of Islands to Hokianga.

Te Roroa received a friendly visit from Pokaia of Ngapuhi Proper
Whilst staying at Waipoua, the news came from Otamatea, one of the inlets of mid-Kaipara, that the wife of Pinaki, Te Toko's son, (of Te Uriohau) had been seduced by one of the Ngati-Whatua men at Te Hekeua's settlement where the home of the Uri-o-Hau tribe was, Te Hekeua being the principal chief of that tribe, and father of Pikea-te-Hekeua so well known to Europeans when the Otamatea district was later settled. (page 22 : 19th Century Maori Wars)

Te Roroa invited Pokaia of Ngapuhi to join them
Naturally, Te Roroa tribe were very angry at this insult to themselves in the person of the son of one of their chiefs, and at once steps were taken to avenge it. A taua or war party was immediately organised, and Pokaia (of Ngapuhi) was invited to join in it, no doubt through relationship to Te Roroa people. The Nga-Puhi chief would be nothing loth to see a little fighting; what Maori would? But he little foresaw the momentous results that were to flow from thus joining in the quarrel of others. The taua was under Te Toko, (of Te Uriohau) and it would have to pass down the Northern Wairoa river (south of present day Dargaville) and up the Otamatea River in canoes. (pages 22 - 23 : 19th Century Maori Wars)

Pokaia of Ngapuhi left outside Uri-o-Hau Pa
so he could be deliberately attacked

Now Te Roroa and Te Uri-o-Hau tribes are nearly related, and probably that is the reason why, on the arrival of the taua at Te Hekeua's (Uri-o-Hau of Ngati-Whatua) pa (near Otamatea), he waved a signal to Hekeumu, (of Uri-o-Hau) Taoho (of Te Roroa) and Te Toko, (of the Te Uriohau) to enter the pa and leave Pokaia (Ngapuhi) and his party so that he (Te Hekeua chief of Uri-o-Hau) might attack him. A skirmish took place, in which Te Tao, Pokaia's son was killed by Te Hekeua; but what satisfaction Te Toko got for the insult offered to his daughter-in-law is not stated. It will be seen from the above incident that the Nga-Puhi leader (now) had a take, or cause, against the Uri-o-Hau tribe, and incidentally one also against Te Roroa tribe also, for it was they who invited him to assist them, in doing which Pokaia lost his son. (page 23 : 19th Century Maori Wars) It is bcause of this event that led to Te Roroa losing total control of the land in the Maunganui Block at Maunganui Bluff. It became Nga-Puhi land.

War Party Taua returns to Kaihu from Otamatea, Kaipara
The taua now returned to Opanake (just south of present day Kaihu) in the Kaihu valley from Otamatea, where the body of Te Tao was buried whilst Pokaia returned to his home (near Kaikohe). Before doing so he enjoined on Taoho the necessity of seeking revenge for "our son" (ta taua tamaiti). (page 23 : 19th Century Maori Wars)
Pokaia now realizes he had been tricked.


Pokaia returns to Kaihu to exhume his Son's Bones - 1805/6
A year had elapsed and Pokaia returned to Kaihu, to carry out the hahunga or exhumation of his son's bones, in order that they might be conveyed to his own home, when the usual tangi would be held over them by the relations. Pokaia now learnt that Taoho had taken no steps to avenge Te Tao's death, and consequently his take against Te Roroa tribe assumed such proportions that he was bound in Maori honour to take notice of it. Soon after his return home, events occurred which brought this feeling to a head. (Page 24 : 19th Century Maori Wars)

Pokaia takes wife and children of Tore-tumua-te-Awha
It was probably at this time that Pokaia made up his mind to attack Te Roroa tribe, and therefore took back with him to Wai-mutu (just east of Kaikohe) the wife and children of Tore-tumua-te-Awha, (Parore te Awha's father) to whom he was related. This would be done in order to save their lives. (as they had been forced several years prior down to the Wairoa River). Toa (born approx. 1683)
(Born approx. 1715) Paikea = Kawa
(Born approx 1740, died approx 1818) Tara-mai-nuku = Te Taia
Tore-tumua-te-Awha = Pehirangi (of Ngapuhi proper)
Parore-te-Awha* (page 24 : 19th Century Maori Wars)
(*Parore-te-Awha was a very fine specimen of the old Maori chief-a fine stalwart man, beautifully tattooed, whose mana over his people was very great. He died at Kaihu, (Note - See Obituary Auckland Weekly News, Page 13, 8th October 1887) between 90 and 100 years old. His mother, Pehi, was of the Ngati-Rangi tribe of Kaikohe, and a descendant of Rahiri (see p. 151 Polynesian Journal also page 29 of 19th Century Maori Wars.)
(Parore te Awha later became the head of his section of Ngapuhi).

Waituna fight
Te Roroa & Uri-o-Hau of Ngati-Whatua had Killed a Woman at Hokianga belonging to Ngapuhi - 1806.

In the meantime matters had come to a head between Nga-Puhi and Te Roroa in another direction. A woman belonging to the former tribe (Ngapuhi) had been killed at Waituna, a place inland of the Wai-mamaku river two miles south of the Hokianga Harbour. This was said to have been done at the instigation of, or with the knowledge of, Hekeumu (Uri-o-Hau) and Te Toko (Te Roroa). This appears to have led to a skirmish, in which Nga-Puhi (probably the Hokianga people) angered a severe defeat at the hands of Te Roroa. This fight took place at Waituna (near Waimamaku River, south Hokianga). Eruera Patuone (Eruera Maihi Patuone, brother of Tamati Waka Nene, the great friend of the Pakeha, died 14th September, 1872, at the probable age of 108. He was of the Ngati-hao tribe of Hokianga) was present with the Nga-Puhi and barely escaped with his life, after slaying the Roroa chief Tataka-hua-nui. (page 24 - 26 : 19th Century Maori Wars)
This event, though Pokaia was not engaged in it, was a further inducement for him to attack Te Roroa tribe; but there were other causes as well, for Mr. Carleton, in his "Life of Archdeacon Williams," tells us that, "Pokaia, ancestor of the famous Hone Heke, (flag pole cutter later in 1845) was deeply in love with Kararu, sister of Hongi-Hika, (man slayer of the 1820's) and (Pokaia) persecuted her so to become his wife, that she, to be rid of him, became the wife of Tahere, a much older chief. Pokaia, in order to vent his rage and vexation, made a wanton attack on Taoho, (Te Roroa) chief of Kaihu, a brave of the Ngati-Whatua tribe." (page 26 : 19th Century Maori Wars)
Note - Eruera Maihi Patuone, Tamati Waka Nene are related to Arama Karaka Pi, Te Waka, Te Kaha, Kairau and Wi Pou of Ngatiue.

Above Events Confirmed by Evidence sworn to the Court
Parore x-examined By the Court - My father and Taoho, myself at Te Puhi a Taoho and Taramainuku. We went to the West Coast and from a circumstance that happened on the road caused us to be called Te Whanau Tikotiko. (Note - Meaning = Whanau =settle upon (as the frost), stand out, protrude. Tikotiko. The family stands out) We lived at Kaihu (Note - now Dargaville) and Pokaia came from Waimutu to fetch my mother away and she was taken to Te Tuhuna (Note - a pa at Mata-raua) at Kaikohe and all the children were taken away with her and Taoho was left on the ground. (Referring to events of 1805) He lived there amongst the Ngapuhi (Parore's fathers people for a short period) and the Ngapuhi (note - referring to his relations of the Kaikohe Ngapuhi proper via his mother) came to murder the Te Rore people. (1806-7) Hukiumu & Te Tako (Note - Reads and spelt in 19th Century Maori Wars as Hekeumu and Te Toko) were the cause of it. (Note - re Otamatea adultery in 1804) They were the head of the party. They (Ngatiwhatua) declared war on account of a woman belonging to them (Note - as already mentioned re Pokaia) they came to Kaihu and killed people at Te Waituna inland at Waimamaku, the (second) murder was committed there (referring to another fight in 1806). This was the cause of the war (from 1806 to 1825) and for this cause I am put off the land (Note - Temporally referring to lands extending from Waipoua, Maunganui down to Kaihu, Dargaville, as a section of Ngaitu came and dwelt there as subalterns of Ngapuhi proper between 1806 - 1824). I suppose my father was engaged in the war and for this cause I was called a murderer by the people outside. (Ref - Kaipara Minute Book 2:204)

1806 - Pokaia (Ngapuhi) of Ngapuhi proper
attacks Taoho's sectionTe Roroa at Kaihu

These causes combining, induced Pokaia (Ngapuhi) to raise a taua and proceed to Kaihu, (Opanake) where he suddenly fell upon a small pa of Taoho's (Te Roroa) called Whakatau, near Maropiu, which he took by surprise, killing, and then eating all the inhabitants. (Note - this site located a few hundred metres just north of the Kaiiwi Lakes turn off on the eastern rightside of the State Highway 12 being now a bush reserve, tapu ground)
"This," says Mr. Maxwell, "was the first overt act of war between Nga-Puhi proper and Te Roroa," but the Nga-Puhi losses at Waituna (near Waimamaku River south. A section of Ngapuhi also linked to Ngapuhi proper of Kaikohe) may also be included as an additional take. (Note - This is why some of these people of this section of Ngapuhi came to dwell at Maunganui re the Rori attack on Te Roroa several years earlier in the late 1700's) From subsequent events, these fights may probably be fixed as securing in the year 1806. We do not learn who the people were that were killed, but it is clear that they-being Te Roroa tribe-were nearly related to Ngati-Whatua of Southern Kaipara, for it was that tribe that rose in arms to avenge them. (19th Century Maori Wars page 26)

(Note - This attack split Te Roroa into two sections or camps. Those left behind in the Wairau Waimamaku and those fleeing to the South with Taoho. It all depended on blood relationship whether it was safe to stay behind or flee).

1806 - Muru-paenga of Ngati-Rongo of Ngati-Whatua
decides to attack Ngapuhi for Ngapuhi's attack
on Te Roroa at Whakatau Pa - near Maropiu

For the first time in the history of Ngati-Whatua we learn for certain of the doings of their great leader Muru-paenga, who belonged to the branch (hapu) named Ngati-Rongo. His home was on the eastern shores of the Kaipara river in the neighbourhood of Maka-rau, (north of Kaukapakapa) where he was visited by Marsden in 1820. At this time (1806) he would be about 35 to 40 years of age, and an accomplished warrior, who after-wards became celebrated for his powers.
It was Muru-paenga who now raised a taua of his own people to avenge the deaths of the Roroa people at Whakatau (near Maropiu). He was joined by 100 men under Te Waru and Te Wana-a-riri of the Ngati-Whatua proper tribe, whose residence was at Otakanini, (On the South Kaipara Head near Shelley's Beach) on the opposite side of the harbour to Muru-paenga's home. The taua proceeded northward by canoes up the Northern Wairoa river to Kaihu, and thence crossing the Waoku plateau, (eastern side of the Waipoua Forest) fell suddenly on the Nga-Puhi settlements at Mata-raua, taking the pa Te Tuhuna, (Note - this being the Pa where Parore's mother and children had formerly been taken in 1805) and killing a number of people. Mata-raua is situated on the upper Punaki-tere river, (in Ngaitu country) a branch of the Hokianga, (south, south west of Kaikohe) and not far from Pokaia's home. (Note - Mata-raua on the Punakitere 70 years onward in the 1870's was the general area of the Ngaitu or Wi Pou's people).
Subsequently the (above war party) taua attacked Tai-a-mai, (Kaikohe district) near the present home of the Williams family, (Time of making this statement present day was 1900 place being between Ohaeawai and Waitangi) and were equally successful there. This slaughter was called "Te-patu-turoro." According to Ngati-Whatua accounts, a peace was then concluded with Nga-Puhi, but this truce did not affect Te Roroa, who had not apparently joined in the Ngati-Whatua expedition. (19th Century Maori Wars page 27)
(Note - Muru-paenga of Ngati-rongo of Ngatiwhatua was killed at Mahurangi and buried at Puhoi this is why chief Te Hemara of Wenderholm made claim to land in the Northern Wairoa extending to Maunganui in the mid 1870's due to these events)

1806 - Pokaia bound to Attack Taoho's Pa, Te Kawau near Kaihu
Nga-Puhi were now the sufferers, and were in honour bound to obtain utu for their losses. Pokaia again took the field and attacked and took Te Kawau pa near Kaihu, killing several people. (19th Century Maori Wars page 28) (Note - Pokaia was Hone Heke's father.)

1806 - Pokaia attack Tirotiro Pa of Te Roroa's
He then attacked another of Te Roroa pas named Tirotiro, which was situated close to where Taoho was living. Hitherto Taoho had taken no notice of the killing of his people; he had said, "Let Pokaia take payment for the death of his son." But finding that Pokaia seemed determined to push matters to extremities, he came to the conclusion that he would be the next victim, so abandoned his settlement at Opanake in the Kaihu valley, and removed to Te Puka on the Wairoa River. (19th Century Maori Wars page 28) (Note - Kaihu then was by present day Dargaville. Opanake is by the now known present day Dargaville).

1806 - Pokaia Attacks Taoho at Te Puka on the Wairoa
Nga-Puhi finding that Taoho had gone, followed him up and attacked him at Te Puka, but suffered a repulse and lost one of their chiefs, Taura-whero, of the Ngati-Manu hapu, who was killed by Taoho. (19th Century Maori Wars page 28)

1806 - Pokaia attacks Taoho at Arapohue
Taoho again moved down the Wairoa to Arapohue, just opposite the modern township of Aratapu the full name of which is Te Aratapu-a-mania, (south of present day Dargaville) where Nga-Puhi followed him and were again repulsed. (19th Century Maori Wars page 28)

1806 - Taoho shifts to Tiki-nui and Tokatoka
Te Roroa now in exile

After the attack at Arapohue Nga-Puhi appear to have retired, for a sufficient time elapsed to allow of Te Roroa constructing pas at Tiki-nui (the bluff about four miles below Tokatoka) and at Tokatoka itself. In these fights we first hear of the celebrated Hongi-Hika,* who took part in them under Pokaia's leadership. The Hokianga tribes of Ngati-Korokoro, Ngati-Manu, and Te Hikutu, (of Whirinaki) formed part of the taua, no doubt anxious to avenge their losses at Waipuna. (should read Waituna) The result of this series of fights seems to have been not very decisive for either side, for both claimed the victory. (19th Century Maori Wars page 28-9)
*The following table shows Hongi Hika's connection with the great Nga-Puhi ancestor Rahiri, who was their "Tino-ariki," and "Taumata-okiokinga," supreme chief and head of all Nga-Puhi:-

Te Hau
Te Wairoa
Te Muranga
Te Whakaaria
Te Hotete
Hongi Hika
Te Maai
Pehi-rangi (f)
Te Koua

(Note - Parore's mother Pehi-rangi was of the Ngati Rangi tribe of Kaikohe and a descendant of Rahiri. As it can be seen Parore te Awha is clearly related to both Hone Heke and Hongi Hika)


1806 - Ngapuhi attack Tikinui Pa
Whether Nga-Puhi now left the district or not is uncertain, but it is clear they withdrew for a time, for in the next event we find Taoho and his people sufficiently assured of safety to proceed to the west coast on a fishing expedition, leaving the woman and children at Tikinui. During his absence Nga-Puhi attacked and took that pa, killing most of the women and children, and then retired towards Maunga-nui Bluff. (19th Century Maori Wars page 29)

1806 - Taoho now Dwelt at his Tokatoka Pa
Taoho now dwelt in his pa at Tokatoka, the graceful mount on the Northern Wairoa river. From here, on one occasion he again went to the west coast to preserve tohe-roa, the giant cockle-shell of those parts. He was overtaken there by a small taua under Te Pona, of Ngati-Kawa, a sub-tribe of Te Uri-o-Hau, who stated that they were on their way to attack Nga-Puhi. (19th Century Maori Wars page 29-30)

Te Pona of Ngati-Kawa, sub tribe of the Uriohua of Ngati-Whatua attack Ngapuhi at Pa-hakehake and suffer defeat
They proceeded northwards along the coast to a place called Pa-hakehake, where they met Nga-Puhi under the leadership of Te Kahakaha, from who fell on Te Pona's party (Note - Being Ngati-kawa sub tribe of the Te Uriohua) in the night (it was moonlight) and killed 30 of them, but few escaping to carry back the news. It is not quite clear from the conflicting accounts preserved, but probably Wai-tarehu, of the Roroa tribe, was killed in this affair. Pa-hakehake is situated north of Moremo-nui on the coast, being just north of Omamari beach settlement. (19th Century Maori Wars page 30)

(Note - Te Kahakaha and Te Kairua both of Ngapuhi were now living on the land at Maunganui Bluff. They now lived there up until 1824 when they went back home to Punakatere south west of Kaikohe being ancestors to Wi Pou in later years in the 1870's).

Ngapuhi had Gained the Advantage over Te Roroa
These events occurred about 1806, and on the whole Nga-Puhi had gained the advantage. As Carleton says, these successes gave Pokaia (Of Ngapuhi proper) a great name as a warrior, and therefore when he proposed a further campaign against Te Roroa, he found plenty of people willing to follow him, and amongst them Hongi-Hika, who was now beginning to come to the fore as a leader. In addition to this, the Nga-Puhi defeats at Wai-tuna (being inland of the Waimamaku River, South Hokianga) and Mata-raua (in land south, south west of Kaikohe) had to be wiped out, and shortly after in 1807 they made a great effort to do so. (Being the battle of Moremo-nui) (19th Century Maori Wars page 30)


Kaihu case :
21st Feb'y 1871, (Kaipara Minute Book 2:198) Mr Bamara, Licenced Surveyor, stated - When he got to Wairoa he met Parore and Pirikia who requested him to make the survey. He commenced the survey at Maugatara. He states that 18th April 1870 was the first day they met with opposition when surveying. The Te Rore said the survey should not go on. Te Rore told them he would break their instruments. (page 199) Mr Bamara stated that the survey was finished but he has not been paid for it by the natives yet. Parore stated that the map produced was of the land and he ordered the survey. He said he claims the land and he is the sole owner with Pirika the other owners are all dead.
Parore claims from Toa
Parore claims it (Kaihu) from Ancestorship from Toa who was of Ngatiwhatua and Te Roroa. Tiopira stated he opposed the claims of Parore to Kaihu and his witness is Te Rore Taoho. Tiopira Kinaki states that Parore's statement is incorrect. (Page 201) Tiopira Kinaki states that he claims the land from ancestry and also occupation. He states the whole of my ancestors have reoccupied this land down to myself, seven generations. I have cultivated on the land in this map. We came to Kaihu in 1830 to live at Kaihu and Te Rore has lived there ten years from 1861. There was a dispute about this land formally the dispute was on account of Kaihu not for land at the Wairoa.
The fight was at Te Waitotonui. This is outside the Map on the Kaihu mountain. My ancestors came back again and fought them at Te Nauoteraorao this is inside the map. Parores people then left this lands and went to live on the Wairoa. We were the conquerers and my ancestors reoccupied the land.

(Page 202) Tiopira Kinaki stated that Parore is a Ngapuhi for five generations and they have come to dispute the land with him.
Tiopira states - Te Roroa did not die from fighting they died a natural death (sickness) the others were fought with and destroyed. Tiopira states that the fight was before Te Ikaaranganui. (1825) He states that when Governor Hobson came to the country, Parore was in occupation of the land and also Tiopira's elders.
(Page 203) Te Rore Taoho stated that Tiopira's evidence is correct. He stated that the map is incorrect and he objects to the survey of the land. Te Rore Taoho states - I have a claim on the whole Block there is not a position of it that I have not a claim on. Te Rore objected to Parore's claim because he is Ngapuhi.
Parore is a Ngapuhi because Paikia is a bastard.
Te Rore Taoho stated - Parore is a Ngapuhi because Paikia is a bastard. Paikia's wife was Kaara the begat Taramainuku, his wife was Te Taia they begat Taretumua Te Awha his wife was from Ngapuhi they begat Parore who is now living. Parore's wife was Tawera, Tirarau's sister they begat Wata Parore (murdered). Parore was from Taou but he is a Ngapuhi from the line of Taramainuku to the present time and he has been my enemy from that time to now.
(Page 204) Parore Te Awha states he was born at Mangakahia and lived at Kaihu. Taoho lived there amongst the Ngapuhi and the Ngapuhi came to murder the Te Rore people. (1806) Hukiumu and Te Tako were the cause of it.
1806 - Parore states - They (referring to Ngatiwhatua) were the head of the party. They (Ngapuhi) declared war on account of a woman belonging to them they came to Kaihu and killed people at Te Waituna inland at Waimamaku,(south Hokianga) the (2nd) murder was committed there. (Approximately 1795) This was the cause of the war and for this cause I was put off the land. (by Ngapuhi proper as they took the women and children to the Kaikohe distrcit. Approximately 1807) I suppose my father was engaged in the war and for this cause I was called a murderer by the people outside.


Brig "Venus" taken by Convicts
In the year 1806, the "Venus" brig was taken by convicts at Port Dalrymple in Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania). They brought her to New Zealand, where, at the North Cape, they took away two women belonging to Te Au-pouri tribe. Calling at the Bay of Islands, they took some more women away, one of whom was a sister of Te Morenga's, (Te Morenga was Marsden's great friend. He belonged to the Uri-Kapana hapu of Tai-a-mai, some fifteen miles west of the Bay of Islands. Eastern Kaikohe district) and also taken was another a relative of Hongi's.
At Whangarei, again they took two women away, one of whom was a niece of Te Morenga's. We shall see later on what these abductions led to. From Whangarei the brig went up the Hauraki Gulf, and whilst there her crew captured several people, and amongst them the principal chief of Ngati-Paoa--Te Haupa. As the vessel put to sea she was followed by a canoe, and Te Haupa, watching his opportunity, jumped overboard, where he was picked up by the crew of the canoe and thus escaped to obtain some utu for the unfortunates taken away by the brig.
Most of these people were subsequently landed at or near the East Cape, where, after a time, Ngati-Porou killed and ate them. Te Morenga's niece, whose name was, I believe, Tawaputa, was killed at Tauranga by Te Waru, of the Ngai-Te-Rangi tribe. This death also, as we shall see, led to some momentous results. Unfortunately for the ends of justice, the originators of all this villainy escaped punishment--at any rate, at the hands of the Maoris. (page 56 - 57 : 19th Century Maori Wars)

(Note - As well as the Ngapuhi's taking on Te Roroa and Ngati whatua this is the reason why the Ngapuhi later had a score to settle against the southern tribes to the South).

Fixing the date of Moremo-nui - 1807
The date of the battle of Moremo-nui between Nga-Puhi and Ngati-Whatua, is fixed by the following : Marsden, in writing of it, in more than one place, says it occurred two years before the taking of the "Boyd" at Whangaroa in 1809. Major Cruise learnt from the natives (probably from Tui who could speak English) that the great battle took place twelve years before 1820. Te Puhi-Hihi, of Kaihu, Kaipara, told Mr. C. F. Maxwell (Note - About 1897) that it took place, two years before the "Boyd," though, at the same time Te Rore-Taoho (son of Taoho) feels sure it took place after the "Boyd." (Note - Te Rore Taoho was not born until about 1810 himself). We shall be very near the mark in fixing it at 1807.


1807 - A few of the Hokianga people join Pokaia
A few of the Hokianga people joined in this expedition, (a descent on Kaipara) but the bulk-Mr. Webster informs S.P. Smith-remained at home watching the result. The taua came along by way of the West Coast, passing through the Roroa territories which extend from near Wai-mamaku-some two miles south of Hokianga Heads-to Kaipara. It is probable that the Roroa people (Note - being the cousins or other half) retreated before them (Ngapuhi) to their relatives dwelling on the banks of the Wairoa, (Note - Roroa had been split in two groups Those at Waimamaku and those who had followed Taoho who had moved south only a few years to live among the Ngapuhi being Parore's father's and grandfather's people in the Kaihu Valley.) for we hear of no incidents of the march until the taua arrived at Waikara, just to the north of Maunga-nui Bluff, where Nga-Puhi waited some time, living on the cultivations there. Some one of the taua, being probably tired of a vegetable diet, suggested, "E! me tiki he kuao hei kinaki mo a tatou riwai"-"Let us go and fetch a young one as a relish for our potatoes"; the "young one" meaning one of their enemies in this case, though it usually signifies a young pig. A small party, acting on this hint, crossed over Maunganui Bluff and killed a man scout belonging to the Roroa tribe, (Note - who Te Roroa had sent north from Toko Toko on the Wairoa where they were now living) who, no doubt, was duly eaten as kinaki for the potatoes. (19th Century Maori Wars page 40-1)
(Note - Te Roroa had come South about 1795 from the Hokianga, Wairau, moving South into Parore's family's people totally where they were only just tolorated as they were distant cousins about six generations removed. It should also be remembered how Parore's people of Kaihu were closely related to Ngapuhi proper for five generations).

1807 - Ngati-Whatua hear of Ngapuhi coming
The news of the coming of Nga-Puhi had already been announced to the Ngati-Whatua tribe in southern Kaipara by special messengers, and preparations were made to meet the foe before they invaded the Kaipara territories. Muru-paenga (of Ngati Rongo of Ngati-Whatua) summoned his warriors and departed by canoe for the Wairoa river, accompanied by Ngati-Whatua proper (hapu of Ngati-Whatua) from Otakanini (south Head, Kaipara) and its neighbourhood, under their chief Te Wana-a-riri and many another noted warrior.
Taoho, of Te Roroa hapu (Ngati whatua) was sitting at the door of his house in the pa of Tokatoka, from which there is a very extensive view in all directions. He saw a column of smoke go up from Maunganui Bluff, the well known signal used by these tribes for generations past to denote the presence of an enemy. Arising, he sung the ngeri, or war song of Ngati-Whatua:-

Ko te puru! Tis the puru ! *
Ko te puru ! Tis the puru !
Koa a Tokatoka. Indeed, of Tokatoka.
Kia ueue ! Exert (yourselves) !
Kia tangatangai te riri e ! Be quick to anger !
E kore te riri e tae mai ki Kaipara, And no war shall Kaipara reach,
Kia puta waitia But pass away.
Kia toa ! Be brave !
A ! a ! a ! te riri ! A ! a ! a ! 'tis war !
*The puru is the name of a projection on Tokatoka mount. "Be firm as the rock on Tokatoka" is the meaning.
(19th Century Maori Wars page 41-2)

Ngapuhi assembled on the South side of Maunganui Bluff
The people of the pa (Toka Toka) at once aroused and prepared for the march, whilst messengers were dispatched to hasten the arrival of the Southern people.
Scouts of Te Roroa were sent off, who ascertained that Nga-Puhi were now in force on the south side of Maunganui Bluff. (Note - being in the region of Manuwhetai and Whangaiariki where Te Kaha and Te Kairua of Ngapuhi now lived) One of these men penetrated into the camp by night, and moving quietly about learned that Nga-Puhi intended to move on the next night to Moremo-nui (down the coast) and there camp, as it was the only place along the coast in that part where was a sufficiently large opening in the cliffs to admit of so numerous a party camping. Whilst making his way out of camp the scout secured a basket of kao, or dried kumaras, and hastening back through the night brought it to Taoho, (of Te Roroa) and the taua of combined Ngati-Whatua, Te Roroa, and Te Uri-o-Hau, then camped on the coast, as a visible proof of the story he had to tell.
An immediate advance on Moremo-nui (Note - moving Northward) was decided on by the leaders, Muru-paenga (of Ngati-rongo hapu) and Taoho, (of Te Roroa hapu) and before night the force was in ambush at that place.
Moremo-nui is a little stream which, after passing, through the sand-dunes on top of the red clay cliffs, falls into the sea about twelve miles south of Maunganui Bluff. The perpendicular cliffs are here about 150 foot high, and below them lies the long, straight, hard, sandy beach of Ripiro, that extends in one direct line for fifty-two miles from Maunganui Bluff to Kaipara Heads. The little valley in which the stream runs is clothed in flax and toetoe, which afforded shelter to the Ngati-Whatua host, as it awaited the coming of Nga-Puhi. No doubt, as each warrior lay concealed awaiting the foe, he repeated his ki-tao or reo-tao to give power and efficacy to his weapon. The following is a Ngati-Whatua specimen of such a prayer :-
Kohukohu te rangi, Be-clouded be the heavens,
Ka kohukohu. Cloud covered.
Rangona ana ki raro ra 'Tis heard down here below,
Tangi ana te kirikiri Rolling is the thunder,
Rangona ana ki raro ra, 'Tis heard down here below,
Tangi ana te aweawe. Echoing in the expanse.

Titoko mapuna, huaki rere, The quivering spear, to surprise in flight,
Te mango taha rua, Like the double-sided shark,
I rere ai te tapuae Is the fleetness of the footsteps,
I nguha ai te tapuae, Is the raging of the footsteps,
I taka toto ai to tapuae, In blood are the footsteps,
Tenei hoki te tapuae ka rumaki. Here the footsteps headlong rush.
Ko tapuae o Tu. 'Tis the footsteps of Tu !
Hikoia te whetu ! Stride over the stars !
Hikoia te marama ! Stride over the Moon !
Ka rere ! ka rere ! Flee ! Take flight !
Ko te atawhaia. Now the death-stroke.
(19th Century Maori Wars page 42-4)


1807 - Moremo-nui was an Ambuscade
Moremo-nui was an ambuscade, not a pitched battle in due form. In the latter case, certain formalities were complied with before the fighting commenced. In his "Lectures," 1851, the Rev. Mr. Buddle gives a good description of these preliminaries, which are worth repeating because the "Karere Maori" newspaper, in which the lectures" were published, is very scarce, and, moreover, Mr. Buddle was a competent authority on such subjects. He says, "When the armies met in open field, they were drawn up by their respective healers in deep columns face to face, accompanied with the hideous war dance. The taos, or braves, rushed out between whilst the principal body rested on their arms or flourished about defying their enemies, the toas aiming at distinction by slaying the first man (mata-ika). The leaders generally exerted themselves to excite the passions of the army by addresses. The reasons of the conflict are set forth with all the peculiar powers of Maori oratory, and by the most impassioned appeals to the excited feelings of the untutored savage. The pride of the tribe, their honor, their wives and their children, the bravery of their ancestors, the spirits of the departed, their own lives now menanced-every fact and circumstance dear to them is invoked, and all the powers of their wild poetry and savage rhetoric employed to influence the passion of war and stimulate bravery." The obtaining of the first blood, the death of the first slain-or mata-ika-was considered a matter of very great importance as presaging the victory of the side that obtained it. On meeting, the toas or braves advanced in front of the ranks which were frequently separated only by a small space, sometimes not more than twenty feet. A toa would sometimes dash at the ranks of the enemy and there dispatch his victim with a blow of the mere or a spear thrust; this was considered-as it truly was-an act of bravery, and the toa got great fame through thus securing the (first slaying) mata-kia. The usual exclamation of the victor on such occasions was, "Kei au te mata-kia !"-"I have the first fish!"-at which his friends raise a great shout (umere) and at once proceed to attack their enemies. (19th Century Maori Wars page 44-5)

1807 - Dawn at Moremo-nui
Before dawn the Ngati-Whatua host partook of a hasty meal, and not long afterwards, just at the break of new day, the Nga-Puhi army appeared, and, not suspecting the proximity of their opponents, at once took off their belts, laid down their weapons and proceeded to prepare a morning meal. Whilst eating they were suddenly attacked by Ngati-Whatua (who had been laying in wait) and for a time a great scene of confusion ensued, as warriors rushed here and there to secure their weapons. Ngati-Whatua soon drove them to the open beach, where an obstinate fight took place, lasting for some time, as success first favored one party, then the other. The Nga-Puhi guns stood them in good stead, for Ngati-Whatua had none. It is said that one of the latter (Ngati-Whatua) was pierced by eight bullets before he fell, and that he, eventually recovered. His name is forgotten. (19th Century Maori Wars page 45-6)

1807 - Death of Pokaia Leader of Ngapuhi at Moremo-nui
Eventually Ngati-Whatua, (combined) incited thereto by (their chiefs) Muru-paenga and Taoho, closed on their enemies with a rush, and during the melee, Pokaia of Ngapuhi and Uncle to Hone Heke received a death-blow from a mere at the hands of Taoho (of Te Roroa, Ngati whatua). Nga-Puhi were panic stricken at the death of their leader, and commenced to flee. At this juncture, Taoho directed Teke an Uri-o-Hau chief, to get close up to the retreating Nga-Puhi, and with his weapon draw a deep line on the sandy beach, (being the Marking of the Sands) beyond which none of the Ngati-Whatua taua were to pass in chase.
The blood relationship of the two opposing parties gave rise to the wish not to finally exterminate the vanquished host. It is said by the victors, (Ngatiwhatua) that had this not been done, the whole of Nga-Puhi would have been overtaken and slain. As is was, they lost some great chiefs, amongst whom were Pokaia (the leader), Te Waikeri, Tu-Karawa, Tohi, Hou-awe, Te Hau-moka and others, (Mr. J. Webster says that Rangatira was also killed here; he was a great chief of Lower Hokianga) whilst the celebrated Hongi-Hika only escaped by his fleetness of foot. Nga-Puhi acknowledge to have lost one hundred and fifty (Judge Maning says three hundred, Carleton two hundred, and that one hundred and seventy heads were stuck up on poles by Ngati-Whatua) men out of the five hundred that composed the taua. (19th Century Maori Wars page 46-7)

Taoho wounded
It is said that Taoho (Te Roroa) was wounded in the mouth by a spear-thrust, that passed right through his head coming out at the back of the neck. Whilst his opponent still held one end of the spear, Taoho drew it towards him and then killed his enemy with a blow from his mere. (19th Century Maori Wars page 47)

Moremonui was Hongi Hika's reason for continuing the 19th Maori Wars which had now started and already mentioned the following years up to the 1830's 80,000 would fall.

Kamariera Te Wharepapa (of Ngapuhi Mangakahia related to Naitu and the chief who had dwelt at Maunganui being Te Kaha and Te Kairau) states - Hongi (of Ngapuhi) was a boy at the time he longed to avenge the death of his matua who fell at Moremonui (in 1807) (Evidence by Kamariera Te Wharepapa, Kaipara Minute Book 3, page 149 - 150, concerning case of Maunganui. 27th January 1876)

1807 - The Marking of the Sand
Although this battle took place at Moremo-nui, it is generally called "Te Kai-a-te-karoro" (the sea-gull's feast), because the dead were so numerous that they could not all be eaten by the victors, and hence were left for the sea-gulls. Another name for it is "Te Haenga-o-te-one" (the marking of the sand), from the line drawn by Teke (of Uri-o-Hau) to stop the pursuit. (19th Century Maori Wars page 48)
(Note - This event Marking of the Sands called Te Kai-a-te-karoro is very important as this is why Te Roroa, Taoho, continued to live in exile on the Kaipara until peace was later made in about 1824. As a result of Te Kairau and Te Kaha who had been living at Maunganui Bluff with their efforts Taoho was allowed to return to live under Parore's protection on Kaihu at Opanake, this being just before Ikaaranganui in 1825).

1807 - The return home of Ngapuhi
The return home of the Nga-Puhi taua (in 1807) after their defeat, (Moremo-nui) and without the usual accompaniment of preserved heads of either friends or foes, must have been a very humiliating one, whilst the ardent desire to obtain utu for their losses would be very strong and widespread. It is said that this defeat was the principal reason of Hongi Hika's visit to England years later in 1820, for the express purpose of obtaining arms wherewith to avenge the death of his tribesmen. But it was not until 1825 (Note - Being after Hongi Hika had ceased havoc through the North Island including Northland) that Nga-Puhi finally took an ample revenge, and on that occasion they nearly annihilated the Ngati-Whatua tribe at the battle of Te Ika-a-ranganui (near Kaiwaka). There were, however, between these dates, many skirmishes, as will be seen. (19th Century Maori Wars page 48-9)

1807 - Ngapuhi Chief came and settled permanently at Maunganui Bluff
After Moremo-nui battle of 1807 Ngapuhi chiefs Karawai and Te Keha (Note - These two chiefs names should read Te Kairau and Te Kaha) (as shown in Kaipara Minute Book 3 page 149-150 case of Maunganui 27-1-76) came from home at Tautoro (five or six miles south of Kai-kohe on the road to Manga-kahia, and on the Punaki-tere branch of the Hokianga River) and settled at Maunganui Bluff.
(Note - Te Kairau and Te Kaha related to Eruera Maihi Patone of Ngapuhi who was a brother to Tamati waka Nene's people. They are also connected in later years to Kamariera Te Wharepapa, Wi Pou and Hokianga who all appeared in the Land Courts 65 years later)

Wai-o-te-marama Battle 1808
It would appear that Te Roroa were not satisfied with their victory over Nga-Puhi at Moremo-nui, or possibly thought a good opportunity had arisen to pay off old scores. They therefore proceeded to Wai-mamaku, some two or three miles south of Hokianga Heads, and there met Ngati-Korokoro at Wai-o-te-marama, (between Omapere and Waimamaku south of Hokianga Harbour) where they were successful in obtaining a victory over the latter tribe, killing the Ngati-Korokoro chief Te Haunui and Te Kawau of the Mahurehure tribe of Waima, (towards Taheke) upper Hokianga. Hongi Hika was present on this occasion, and a good many muskets were used, though Te Roroa had none. (19th Century Maori Wars page 50)

1808-9 Ngati-Korokoro attack Te Roroa
In retaliation for this, Ngati-Korokoro attacked Te Roroa (where, is not stated) and succeeded in killing Waitarehu, of the latter tribe. These events probably took place in 1808-9, or about that time. (19th Century Maori Wars page 50-1)

The Fight Named Wai-Puru
Te Roroa attack the Mahurehure division of Nga-Puhi

1810 Apparently, to square the account, Te Roroa now carried the war into the enemy's country (probably going over the Waoku plateau), where they made a descent on the Waima Valley, (south Hokianga) the home of the Mahurehure division of Nga-Puhi. Here they were successful, beating Nga-Puhi and killing many men. The dead were so thickly packed in the stream, on the banks of which the fight took place, that the flow of water was completely stopped, and hence was this fight named Wai-puru from that circumstance.
Ngati-Korokoro were not engaged in this fight, for they had in the meantime fallen out with some of the Tokerau (Bay of Islands) (Ngapuhi) people and were absent on a foray into that country. Hongi Hika was not present either; probably he was not aware in time of the Roroa raid, and, moreover, doubtless his attention was taken up by the Ngati-Korokoro foray into and past his territories. (19th Century Maori Wars page 51)

The Nga-Puhi leaders on this occasion are said to have been Te Waka Nene, Patu-one, Moetara and Te Whare-umu, but it is doubtful. (Note - Moetara is of Te Roroa Ngati-Korokoro descent). (19th Century Maori Wars page 51)

1810 - Te Roroa seize Ngati-Korokoro canoes
and Attack their People

At the landing on the Waima river, the Roroa tribe found the canoes belonging to Ngati-Korokoro, then (on their foray) at Tokerau (Bay of Islands). The Te Roroa tribe, doubtless seeing here an easier means of getting part of the way home, and not willing to allow so good an opportunity to be lost of punishing the Ngati-Korokoro, (of Ngapuhi) took possession of the canoes and paddled off down towards the Heads. Arrived at the mouth of the Whirinaki River, they found the Opara village, (on the Hokianga Harbour) belonging to Ngati-Korokoro, unoccupied by a garrison, and proceeded to land. The women, observing the approach of the canoes, at once concluded that the occupants were of their own people returning and accorded them the customary cry of welcome. The Roroa landed and slew the whole of the inhabitants, and then departed for their homes (south ward) along the coast. (19th Century Maori Wars page 51-2)

1813 - Hongi Hika attacks Whiria Pa at Pakanae
Another reason given for this raid (above mentioned) into Lower Hokianga was, that Ngati-Pou (nearly related to Ngati-Korokoro), under their chief Tuohu, (Note - Who had children who were related to Te Roroa being Tiopira Kinaki's grandfather) had assisted in devouring (eating) some of the Nga-Puhi who fell at Moremo-nui (in 1807).
Hongi raised a taua and proceeded to Lower Hokianga, where he laid siege to the pa named Whiria at Pakanae, (just up the Harbour from Opononi) but he was eventually repulsed. This place is in the Ngati-Korokoro and Te Hikutu territories. Whiria pa was commanded by Te Hukeumu, who was of Te Roroa tribe, and also connected with Ngati-Pou of Ngapuhi, Hokianga, (Note - chief of Ngaitu) and the adjacent hapus. He was placed in command by Moetara (of Ngati-Korokoro a sub-tribe of Ngapuhi whose Mother was a Te Roroa). (19th Century Maori Wars page 53)

1812 - Tuohu, (Roroa) chief of Ngati-Pou,
attacks and takes Hongi's pa Pakinga

Whilst the siege of Whiria was going on, Tuohu, (a grandfather of Tiopira Kinaki of Te Roroa) then living in the Maere-rangi pa near Pakia, Hokianga South Head, made a diversion to distract Hongi's attention by raiding into the enemy's territory at Kaikohe, and there took Hongi's own pa named Pakinga, (Pakinga pa is near the road from Kaikohe to Te Taheke, and had been celebrated in ancient days as the residence of Te Wairua, and as the pa that withstood many sieges) which he had left almost defenseless. Tuohu (of Te Roroa) killed many of the women and children there.
Hongi Finding he wasn't going to be Successful
Finding he was not going to be successful in the taking of Whiria, (at Pakanae near Opononi) Hongi returned homeward, but on his way learnt of the taking of (his own Pa) Pakinga in his absence.
Hongi Hika takes Te Tihi pa and Kills Te Tihi
He at once returned to Hokianga, and took Te Tihi's pa at Lower Waihou, where he also killed Te Tihi himself, shooting him with a horse pistol (kope).
Hongi Hika takes Tuohu's Pa
He then crossed the harbour and took Maere-rangi, Tuohu's pa. Te Tihi nearly related to Ngati-Manu, and to Ngati-Pou, and he had been assisting also in feasting on Nga-Puhi at Moremo-nui.
He was also related to the celebrated Tamati Waka Nene, the European staunch ally in latter years. It is related of Hongi Hika, that on killing Te Tihi he swallowed his eyes-a very ancient Polynesian custom. Maning says, in "The War in the North," that the death of Te Tihi at the hands of Hongi, was one of the reasons why Ngati-Pou joined our side (being the British Troops) in the war against Hone Heke in 1844-Hongi and Hone Heke being near relatives. (Note - also related to Parore te Awha). (Nineteenth Century Maori Wars, page 53-4)

1813-14 - The near Extermination of Northern half of Te Roroa
and the Death of Tuohu

Tiopira Kinaki of Te Roroa (in June 1875) stated - Te Waimamaku Block extends from the coast to the Waoku - this is all one piece of land without any divisional boundaries. The Ngatiue have resided on the land but they were squatters (Nohonoaiho's). They came upon the land at the time of the death of Te Tihi and Tuohu. (1813) I mean my grandfather Tuohu. The Ngatiue and Ngatipou had no claim whatever upon this land. Hokianga people and the Ngapuhi went to war. Karipi a Hokianga chief went and slew some of Ngapuhi. He killed Te Wai. A party came slyly and killed Te Ainga at Hokianga at Te Peke as payment. Karipi went off and killed Te Puhi at Punakitere. After this real fighting commenced. The Ngaitu came to Mataraua at Waihou the Ngapuhi attacked them there at Matarua and drove them to Whangape. The battle at Matarua was called "The Kaitangata". The Ngapuhi also stormed and took Hunoke a pa above Pakia. My grandfather Tuohu was killed in that pa. Te Roroa were nearly exterminated in this fighting. The Ngapuhi returned to their settlement. (Evidence sworn by Tiopira Kinaki, Northern Minute Book 2 page 188 - 189, concerning Case of Waimamaku, 12th June 1875)

Tau-kawau's Expedition down into the Taranaki Territory, 1816-17
The next northern expedition was that under Tau-kawau of Nga-Puhi. This party fought its way through the Ati-Awa and Taranaki territories as far as Puara-te-rangi, a pa situated near Pu-nehu, not far from the present village (1900) of Pihama.
The reason of this expedition was to purchase native garments (kaitakas). The Taranaki people had great knowledge of weaving kaitakas, and their muka (prepared flax) called tihore, or takiri-kau' was very superior. (Note - knwledge that had been derived at by the original people) But ended up in quarrelling, fighting and man slaying. The reason of that strife was, some of the party desired to secure all the best garments; and because of that strife we again divided, fifty of us going one way, fifty another.
One company went with Pangari (of Lower Hokianga), and that man decided to do such works as would cause his name to be heard of by the many of the land. As the party of Pangari travelled along they met an old woman who was gathering tutu berries to make wine; her they killed, then cooked and ate her. Whilst they were cooking her, and when the people put "the fish" (being the woman's body) into the oven, the fire blazed up; this was said to be an omen for them that they should soon see another pa, and if they assaulted it they would take it. The flame of the oven represented the courage of the old woman welling up and leaving the body, and hence it was believed the courage of the tribe of the old woman had evaporated. This old woman was a tohunga, and therefore the courage of her tribe would cease when they stood up in baffle. The oven had been covered in and the "fish" (woman's body) was cooked and being uncovered by the fifty men when the spies returned, who had been sent out to look for the people of the country. The spies said, "The people to whom the old woman belonged have heard of the murder, and the taua hikutoto, or avenging party, has arisen to attack us." "Then the fifty men seized their belts, girded themselves and fell into line for the fight. The enemy appeared and occupied the summit of a hillock. They were very numerous and soon the party retreated, in fact they fled. Whilst retreating, Pangari was wounded in the leg with a kotaha (or sling-spear) which had been thrown by the enemy.
Nga-Puhi continued to retreat until they got a long distance away, when they laid in hiding in a swamp, selecting a hard place in the bog; here they arranged themselves in rank in three parties. One party went to search for food, because they had left the body of the old woman behind in the oven, and this party met the old woman's tribe. They took some reeds and bound them together (to stand on) and fought the Taranaki and the bodies of their dead becoming food for Nga-Puhi. Pangari declared that hunger, thirst, and fear had deprived his tongue of saliva. (For more detail refer to page 64 - 66 of the Ninteenth century Maori Wars).
Note - The fish or rather Fish of Tu is Human Flesh.

Hongi attempts to Hang Himself
On the 13th June 1815, the brig "Trial," Captain Howell, and the schooner "Brothers," Captain Burnett, arrived from New South Wales on a trading expedition, and on the 11th July the "Active" sailed for Port Jackson (NSW), taking as passengers Te Koki (of Paihia), Whetoi (or Pomare), and others. Kaingaroa, Hongi's brother, died a few days previously, on which occasion Hongi attempted three times to hang himself through grief. Had he been allowed to do so, the Maoris of the south part of the island would have been spared some terrible losses. pg 87, 88 Nineteeth century Maori Wars

European vessel attacked by Maori
On the 31st August 1815, the "Trial" and "Brothers" returned from Mercury Bay, where both vessels had been attacked at a place they named Trial Bay on the 20th, by a large number of Maoris, and five Europeans besides, it is said, about a hundred Maoris were killed.


Taurau (Brother of Te Tirarau the Paramount Chief) on behalf of Parore Te Awha states - At the time when Hongi Hika went to Europe was the time that Parore's father (Te Awha) occupied the land from here (Note - Now being present day Dargaville) down to Waipoua - in the year of 1.8. (1818) This estate commences at extends to Te Wairoa including Waipoua. Tiopira commenced here. After Taramainuku's death this estate was held sacred (about 1795). Evidence by Taurau, Kaipara Minute book 3, Page 127 - 128 concerning case of Waimata, Monday 24th May 1875

Patu-One along with Tu-Whare and othe Hokianga Ngapuhi join up with Te Rau-Paraha on an Expedition called Amiowhenua- 1819-20.
It is believed that the great Nga-Puhi expedition sometimes called Amiowhenua took place in the year 1819-20. (Amiowhenua is more correctly applied to the Waikato Ngati-Whatua expedition of a few years later.) It did not affect the main branch of Ngati-Whatua particularly, but the description of the doings of the expedition as it passed through their country and the Isthmus of Auckland will serve to show that the Ngati-Whatua tribes at this time were absent from the Auckland district. Their (Ngatiwhatua) wars with Ngati-Paoa had led them to shun that part of the country; some were in hiding in the Waitakere Ranges, others were at Mangere or Waikato, so that but for occasional predatory expeditions, the Isthmus was without inhabitants, excepting Ngati-Paoa in their fortress of Mau-inaina (Panmure, Mount Wellington). pg 96 Nineteenth century Maori Wars


South Hokianga Ngapuhi and Te Roroa War-Party combine - 1819
This above expedition was undertaken by the Nga-Puhi tribes of Hokianga-none of the Nga-Puhi proper of the east coast joining in it-together with many of the principal chiefs of Te Roroa, a tribe, (hapu) as has been shown, equally related to (these) Nga-Puhi and to Ngati-Whatua, and whose residence is principally to the south of Hokianga Heads, and extending thence to Kaihu (Dargaville) on the Wairoa River, Kaipara. In this expedition we find these ancient enemies combining to make war on others.
The Nga-Puhi leaders were Patu-one, Nene, Te Wharepapa (King George), Moetara, (south Hokianga) Te Kekeao, Tawhai, and many others. The Roroa leaders were Te Karu, (from Puketu) Rori (the 2nd a Ngapuhi), (of North Hokianga) Taoho, (of Te Roroa in exile on the Wairoa) his younger brother Tu-whare (of Hokianga), who was a great warrior and the latter's nephew, Tiopira-Kinaki.
At Kawhia they were joined by the Ngati-Toa tribe under Te Rauparaha and Te Rangihaeata,
and from there the combined forces passed on to Taranaki, Whanganui, Port Nicholson (Wellington) and Wai-rarapa, where, turning back, they followed the same route homewards, finally arriving at Hokianga about October, 1820, having left Hokianga about November, 1819.
The Maori account, after describing some battles the Hokianga people had had with the Rarawa tribes of the North, goes on to say:-"So we dwelt some time at our homes in Lower Hokianga, until after a while, we again felt a desire for man's flesh, and the idea was conceived that we should go on a campaign against the tribes of the south. We accordingly assembled together and arranged with Hongi Hika to form an army to avenge the deaths of some of our people who had been killed by the Southern tribes on the occasion of a journey they made to procure mats in exchange for Maori weapons.* (*Probably Tau-kawau's expedition in 1816-17).
Nga-Puhi assembled at the mouth of Hokianga on the beach at Oma-pere, and then proceeded to offer incantations to Niua and Pou-ahi, and also to Arai-te-uru, to propitiate the spirits of those sacred places. (19th Century Maori Wars page 97-8)
"The following is the proceeding in such cases: When the war party of Nga-Puhi had been duly called together, the chief of each hapu in turn arose, and cutting off a lock of hair from the summit of his head-standing naked the while, all but his maro, or waistcloth--took it in his right hand, and turned his glance towards the "mountains-of-prayer" (maunga hirihiri) of his home, repeated the karakia appropriate to those mountains, saying :-
Kotahi ki reira One to that place
Kotahi ki Pou-ahi, One to Pou-ahi,
Kotahi ki Niua, One to Niua,
Kotahi ki Arai-te-uru. One to Arai-te-uru.*

*See the origin of the names in "Peopling of the North" , p. 24,.
"As he repeated his karakia, on reaching the name of Pou-ahi, he threw part of the lock of hair towards that mount, and so on for the rest of them. The reason that this is done is so that the spirits of the dead shall turn to the speaker and assist him in the. battle, so that he may be brave in the fight. The dead, of old, were buried in the mountains named in the karakia.
"On the south side of Hokianga Heads there is a cave in a perpendicular cliff, which has been the burial place of the people of Hokianga from time immemorable, and that cliff is one of the places invoked (hirihiri) when the war parties go forth to slay men, and its name is also recited in the thanksgiving for food. Ramaroa is the name of the cave. When that part of the country was purchased by Martin as a pilot station in March, 1832, the people removed the bones to another place, and it became common (noa). (Meaning spontaneous, free from Tapu) To reach the cave men were let down over the cliff with a rope.
"So soon as the karakia and other ceremonies connected therewith were over, the taua arose, and at once proceeded on its journey. They went by way of the West Coast southward, along the beach towards Maunga-nui Bluff, and thence on to Kaipara, the mouth of which we crossed, (Note - picking up various persons mentioned above on the way) and went on our way, via Kumeu, (just westward of Auckland) to Te Whau, and as far as Wai-te-mata, where Auckland now stands. pages 98-99 Nineteenth century Maori Wars

The Fight that Led to the Death of Te Roroa chief Tu-whare - 1819
"On the return northward of the Nga-Puhi expedition, (to Cook Strait, Wellington, Wairarapa area) the warriors forced their way up the Whanganui giver in canoes. The people of Puke-namu (Rutland Stockade, town of Whanganui), (Now Wanganui) Patupo and Taumaha-a-aute (a pa near Shakespeare Cliffs) and other pas in that neighbourhood fled up the river.
As Tu-whare (of Te Roroa) and his party, advanced he was attacked and harassed by the people occupying the numerous pas on either side of the river. The Whanganui tribe closed in on his rear as he advanced, thus cutting off his retreat and communication with those left near the mouth of the river. 'But,' said the Maori narrator, 'what was that to Tu-whare! He cleared a path for his party by the terror of his guns. When our people heard the sound of those guns we thought they were pu-tatara (native trumpets), and our old men said, 'Does this man think to conquer Te Ati-Hau with his pu-tatara? Are the descendants of Ao-Kehu and Tama-whiro, of Hau-pipi and Pae-rangi, flying from a sound?' So said our warriors. But when we saw our people falling dead around us, struck from afar off, killed by invisible means, then the knowledge came to us that this was the new weapon of which we had heard, and we realised that our rakau-Maori, or native weapons, were of little avail against the pu-mata, or muskets.
Still we resisted the advance of the Nga-Puhi and constantly kept up the attack all the way up the river, some in advance, some following behind and taking advantage of every coign of vantage. For up Te-Awa-nui-a-Rua (Whanganui River) did Tu-whare fight his way until he reached Te Ana-o-Tararo near Makokoti, above Pipiriki. Here the river narrows in between high cliffs on either side. On the summit of the cliffs a great multitude of people of the Whanganui tribes had assembled to try and stay the progress of Nga-Puhi. Our messengers had gone forth to alarm the tribes of the river and the interior, and in response numbers came to the rendezvous. There gathered the hapus of Te Ati-Hau, Patu-toko-toko, Nga-Poutama, Ngati-Pa-Moana and Nga-Paerangi, at Te Ana-o-Tararo. The tribes of inland Tuhua, and even of Taupo-nui-a-Tia sent their contingents to help exterminate the boastful Nga-Puhi. (19th Century Maori Wars page 120-122)
"When the canoes of Tu-whare were passing through the narrow pass of Te Ano-a-Tararo, we attacked them. From the summits of the cliffs we hurled down on them great logs and huge stones, crushing the canoes, and killing many of their crews. Some turned back on their course down the river, but we followed and slew many. Ah! Te Wai-nui-a-Tarawera (Whanganui River, now spelt Wanganui) ran red to the ocean that day. The Nga-Puhi, who thought to conquer the whole world with their guns, were destroyed by the children of Hau-nui-a-papa-rangi under the shining sun that day!"
The pa of Kai-whakauka is situated on the top of a perpendicular cliff on the river side, with cliffs also on the north, where a little stream joins the main river through a canon. Nga-Puhi (who, says my informant, were eight hundred strong with five hundred muskets-a very obvious exaggeration, the numbers being probably not more than three hundred men and thirty or forty guns) now crossed and occupied the slopes that rise from the pa towards the south, from which they kept up a constant fire upon the pa. Under this fire Nga-Puhi attacked and succeeded in getting into the fort, where, however, the numbers of Whanganui, now able to fight at close quarters with their native weapons, were too much for their foes, a very large number of whom were killed in the pa; others were thrown over the cliffs, to be killed on the rocks below.
Whilst Tu-whare (of Te Roroa) was in the pa, and just coming round the corner of a house, he was met by Ha-marama, a chief of Whanganui, whom Tu-whare fired at and hit in the shoulder; but before he could reload, Ha-marama struck him a blow on the head with his taiaha, which split his skull, but did not kill him. Tu-whare called out, 'Mehemea he ringa huruhuru tau, ko tenei he ringaringa mahi kai.'-('If thine had been the arm of a warrior I should have been killed; but it is the arm of a cultivator.') (19th Century Maori Wars page 123-4)
Tu-whare's people succeeded in getting him away, and carried him wounded unto death, to their canoes, and then made off with all speed down the river, followed by Whanganui as hard as they could paddle. During this flight, Toki-whati, a son (or perhaps nephew) of Tu-whare, was captured by Whanganui. As the two parties were resting in their camps a parley took place, in which Tu-whare asked his enemies if they had seen Toki-whati; the reply was that they held him a prisoner. Upon this negotiations took place and Toki-whati was given up to his own people in exchange for part of a suit of armour that George IV. had given to Hongi when that chief visited England in 1820, and from whom it came into the possession of Tu-whare. (Note - This is unlikely to be a part of the same suit of armour from King George IV as Hongi hadn't been to England at this point and also as Hongi wasn't friendly with Te Roroa)

Death and Burial of Te Roroa Chief Tu-Whare
The great expedition now passed on its way homeward, going by canoes as far as Patea, where, apparently, a division took place, some going on in their canoes to Waitara, whilst others, the Roroa people, went overland, carrying poor Tu-whare on a kauhoa, or stretcher. On their arrival at Kete-marae, the old native settlement not far from Normanby, Tu-whare expired of his wounds. So died this great chief, who, in many battles, had shown his courage and ability as a warrior.
After the burial of Tu-whare and the usual tangi, etc., the northern taua passed onwards towards their homes. With the canoes they possessed, probably they went by sea to Kawhia,
where the northern tribes took farewell of Te Rauparaha and the Ngati-Toa tribe, their companions in arms for so long. It is said that Nga-Puhi and the Roroa people presented Te Rau-paraha with fifty stands of arms, but, probably this is an exaggeration, though some were given, no doubt, which the Ngati-Toa chief shortly after used against Waikato and in his memorable migration to the south. pg 126 nineteenth century Maori Wars.

The Nga-Puhi contingent of this long expedition reached Hokianga about October, 1820, for when Marsden passed through the homes of these people in November of that year the women were still in the whare-potae, or mourning over those who had been killed at Taranaki.
Two of the northern chiefs became afterwards celebrated for the consistent support they always rendered the British Government--in peace and war--the brothers Eruera Patu-one and Tamati Waka-Nene, both chiefs of Upper Hokianga. They both assisted actively in our later war against Hone Heke, 1844. Patu-one died 19th September, 1872, supposed to have been over one hundred years old. pg 126-127 nineteenth century Maori Wars.

1819 - Hongi Chastise the People for having Eaten a Whale
In the meantime on Marsden's arrival he found Hongi just on the eve of starting for Whangaroa to chastise the people of that place for having eaten a whale that had been stranded on the shore, over which Hongi claimed what we should call "manorial rights," but in deference to the wishes of his friend Marsden, he deferred the punishment of these people, at the same time expressing his intention of going further north, to remove the bones of his wife's father, which he did.
On arrival there, however (at Oruru, probably), he found the people had desecrated the grave, and used the bones of his father-in-law for fish-hooks; whereupon he took summary vengeance by shooting six of the offenders, after which a peace was patched up. Hongi was back again at the Bay on the 30th August. pg 129 nineteenth century Maori Wars.

The Chiefs from Hauraki come to the Bay of Islands
in an Attempt to make Peace

On the 20th August there arrived at the Bay a party of chiefs from Hauraki, who came to arrange a peace, they having not long since cut off a cousin of Tui's, and, in return, had lost two of their own people by an expedition from the Bay. On the 23rd September, a further number of Hauraki people arrived on the same errand, and a peace was made, but was not of long duration, as we shall see. These Hauraki people would probably be some of the Ngati-Paoa tribe.
Marsden, on his visits to the settlements about the Bay, (Hauraki) saw numbers of preserved heads, which he learned had been brought back from the east coast by Hongi's and Te Morenga's expeditions of the previous year. Many of these were at Korokoro's pa, situated on an island close to Motu-rua, (Bay of Islands) where Marsden met that chief on the 27th August, with his brothers, Tui and Rangi, and also "Hoora-tookie," or Tuki, one of the Maoris taken to Norfolk Island, (to scrape and prepare flax) and returned by Governor King in 1793.
Mr. Marsden also visited Kingi Hori (or Te Uru-ti) and his nephew Rakau at Kororareka, (Russell), and also Te Koki, living just across the Bay. The former was about to marry Tara's widow, and had lately been robbed (muru) of all he possessed in consequence, an honour that he no doubt fully appreciated, as being in strict accordance with rigorous Maori law. Pomare was at that time living at his home at Waikare. (Pomare's original name was Whitoi; he took the second name after hearing of King Pomare of Tahiti). pg 129-130 nineteenth century Maori Wars.

On September 14th, Korokoro and Hongi had an amicable meeting at Te Puna, brought about by the former's desire to secure Hongi's consent to refrain from molesting: his people during his absence at the Thames, where he was about to proceed with the full strength of his tribe to make peace; as he declared, with the Hauraki people, on account of a rupture due to the death of his uncle Kaipo's son, who had been bewitched by the Hauraki people. We shall hear of his expedition later on. They left about November, and were still absent at the end of the year. pg 130 nineteenth century Maori Wars.

Marsden's visit to the Hokianga
On September 28th 1819, Marsden left the Bay on a visit to Hokianga with Messrs. Kendall and Puckey and one of Hongi's sons, together with Wharepoaka and "Roda" (?Rora, or Rota, of Te Roroa) (Note - probably Rori the 2nd a Ngapuhi chief in Hokianga), of Hokianga. He returned to Rangihoua at the Bay on the 12th October, after having visited several chiefs, amongst them the old chief Wharemaru, about 80 years old, who with his son, Matangi, and his son-in-law, Te Taonui, were living at a village named Oraka, on the Upper Waihou, Hokianga river.
At Utakura he found Muriwai and 300 warriors, many armed with muskets; they were engaged in a quarrel with Matangi at the time. This did not, however, prevent Muriwai furnishing Marsden with a large canoe, in which he accompanied him to Mauwhena's village, near Hokianga Heads. From here, Mr. Puckey went with the priest named "Temangena," to sound the bar. They then visited Whirinaki Valley, where they were received with the accustomed old-fashioned welcome by a large number of people then living there.
On their return they stayed at a village near The Narrows, which Marsden calls "Wetewahetee," which must be Te Whaiti, of which Taraweka was chief. On the following day, Taraweka took the party up the Waima River to Punakitere, to two pas called Otahiti and Rangi-whakataka. (Both situated near the Waima junction with the Punakitere). Subsequently they visited Patu-one at Te Papa, a village on the Upper Waihou, with whom was his brother, probably Waka-Nene. Marsden returned greatly pleased with his visit, and describes in glowing terms the country and the numerous and hospitable population he found there. He got a great deal of interesting information from the priest "Temangena," and having Mr. Kendall with him (who was, after five years' residence, well acquainted with the language) was able to learn a good deal about the people and the country. Marsden's journal of this expedition is very interesting reading.
After his return to the Bay he visited Motu-iti, the residence of Hauraki (or Te Wera), where Marsden met Mohanga, who accompanied Dr. Savage to England in 1805.


The Allan and Susan Titford story

Timeline of Northland History

Letters and Records of Wi Pou Land Sale

History of Te Roroa



History of Te Roroa