PAGE TWO OF MAUNSELL'S "MAKE-DO" TREATY
On the 30th of March, 1840, Reverend Robert Maunsell acknowledged
that he had received a treaty document from "the Secretary"*
(meaning James Stuart Freeman). By that point in time,
the only valid document that he could possibly have received from
the Secretary, for use in his meeting, was the "printed
Maori-language" copy, as the hand-written
Maori-language copy that Maunsell was supposed to use in
his proceedings wasn't ultimately produced and available until mid-March
at the Bay of Islands (a considerable distance away). It was to
be carried to Maunsell by William Cornwallis Symonds and had been
signed-off by the Colonial Secretary, Willoughby Shortland. This
document is now known as "The Kawhia Treaty".
Dr. Phil Parkinson identifies the scribe of that Maori-language
document to be James Stuart Freeman, Hobson's secretary. This official
document, issued for Maunsell's meeting, arrived too late to be
used on the day (April 11th, 1840).
But Freeman had sent other materials to Maunsell shortly before
HMS Herald set sail from the Waitemata Harbour to return a stroke-inflicted
and utterly incapacitated Hobson to the Bay of Islands just after
the treaty meeting there on the 4th of March.
Freeman had taken it upon himself to also forward over to Maunsell
a ruined copy of one of his "Formal Royal Style"
versions in English. Earmarked for overseas despatch only, it had
been ruined when Hobson had attempted a "left-handed"
signature at the height of his stroke (between the 1st and 4th of
It was unprecedented to even suggest that an English-language version
could ever be proffered to the chiefs to sign, as all treaty meetings
were only ever conducted in the Maori language. This explains why
an official, printed Maori-language text was sent at the same time.
Sending Maunsell a printed Maori-language sheet worked as a stop-gap
measure and, ultimately, a saving-grace when Maunsell's official,
government-issued, hand-written, Maori-language sheet was delayed
by 3-days in getting to him before his treaty assembly.
With Hobson being ill upon arrival in New Zealand and severely
incapacitated by a paralytic stroke only 3-weeks after stepping
ashore, many administrative blunders occurred in the first weeks
or months. Not least amongst these displays of "functionary
ineptitude or incompetence" was the careless production of
many varied English renditions of the Treaty (Formal
Royal Style versions, used only in overseas despatches).
On April 11th, 1840, Maunsell stood before 1500 Maori gathered
in for a business hui at Port Waikato and read the official and
solitary, Maori-language treaty to the assembly. He was obliged
to work from the "printed Maori-language sheet" produced
on the CMS Mission press by Reverend William Colenso (mission printer)
on the 17th of February 1840.
The chiefs were later invited to sign the treaty, so the most senior
of them in the Port Waikato area came forward first and signed the
printed-Maori sheet. However, there was only sufficient space at
the bottom of the page for 5 signatures.
Whatever signatures would not fit onto the printed-Maori text document,
were allowed to overflow onto the "Formal Royal
Style" sheet Freeman had sent over to Maunsell
(accompanied by the printed-Maori sheet) before HMS Herald set sail
from the Waitemata after the March 4th meeting there.
Hobson later accepted Maunsell's, two-part, "make-do"
document and acknowledged the wishes of the Waikato Chiefs, whom
he knew had heard and understood the official Maori Treaty
wording presented to them by Maunsell.
This same "make-do" document was used again by Symonds
in his 26th of April meeting at Manukau Heads (his third attempt
at getting signatures there). He had, by this time, forwarded the
"official Maori-language, hand-written, document" that
he was supposed to use at all of his treaty-assembly meetings on
to Reverend John Whitely at Kawhia.
Despite deliberate attempts by the grievance-industry to give the
wrong impression, all treaty meetings in the Manukau - Port Waikato
areas were conducted correctly in the Maori language and the chiefs
signed according to what they heard and understood in their own
tongue. The Formal Royal Style, English
version, placed on the table that day, was used only to catch overflow
signatures that would not fit on the printed-Maori
sheet. Nothing more. It was merely a surplus piece of paper with
plenty of room on it to receive the overflow signatures.
Later, the printed Maori sheet, with the Formal Royal
style version sitting behind it, were glued together
with wax to become one document and Hobson added a waxen seal to
render Maunsell's "make-do", Maori language treaty "official".
*R Maunsell to Lay Secretary, 30 March 1840, in ATL-Micro-MS-Coll-04-33
(CMS Archives CN/M v. 12